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Table 1 EEG/MEG Measures of functional and effective connectivity

From: Electrophysiological insights into connectivity anomalies in schizophrenia: a systematic review

Measure Description Altered in ScZ
Coherence A measure of covariation in the amplitude and/or phase of two neural signals [16]
Imaginary Part of Coherence An estimate of coherence that focuses on time-lagged synchronization [58]  
Phase-Locking Value A measures of the covariation in the phase of two neural signals [18]
Phase-Lag Index A measure of the asymmetry of the distribution of phase differences between two signals [59].  
Granger Causality Estimates the direction of neural communication between two time-series through predicting the course of activation in another cortical area [60]
Transfer Entropy A method to estimate directed interactions without a priori specification of a model for the data [61]  
Directed Transfer Function Comparable method to Granger Causality, but normalized for inflow from all areas [60]
Mutual Information Estimation of amount of signal in first area explained by the signal in the second area [62]
Synchronization Likelihood Normalized strength of mutual information between signals from two areas [63]
  1. Preliminary evidence Robust Evidence