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Table 1 Psychiatric neuromodulation methods compared with tDCS (adapted from (George et al. 2011))

From: Application of transcranial direct current stimulation to psychiatric disorders: trends and perspectives

  ECT VNS TMS DBS tDCS
Clinical Approval By FDA Depression Epilepsy TRD PD None approved
Schizophrenia etc. TRD Migraine TRD
    OCD
Anesthesia General General No General No
Possible Risks Amnesia Hoarseness Headache Stroke Skin redness
Delirium Cough Dizziness Infection Scalp discomfort
   Scalp discomfort Seizure  
Number of sessions for depression 8 to 12 sessions NA 20 to 30 sessions NA 5 to 15 sessions
2 to 3 sessions a week   3–5 sessions a week   3–5 sessions a week
General cost in the U.S. $800 to $1000 per session $5,000 to $30,000 $300 per session $130,000 (Stroupe et al. 2014) No more than TMS per session
  1. ECT: electroconvulsive therapy, VNS: vagus nerve stimulation, TMS: transcranial magnetic stimulation, tDCS: transcranial direct current stimulation, TRD: treatment-resistant depression, PD: Parkinson’s disease, OCD: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, NA: not applicable
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